A.2. Загрузка программы установки

For some quick links to installation images, check out the debian-installer home page. The debian-cd team provides builds of installation images using debian-installer on the Debian CD/DVD page. For more information on where to get installation images, see Раздел 4.1, «Official Debian GNU/Linux installation images».

Some installation methods require other images than those for optical media. The debian-installer home page has links to other images. Раздел 4.2.1, «Where to Find Installation Files» explains how to find images on Debian mirrors.

В следующих подразделах указано, какие образы требуются для каждого конкретного вида установки.

A.2.1. Optical disc

The netinst CD image is a popular image which can be used to install trixie with the debian-installer. This installation method is intended to boot from the image and install additional packages over a network; hence the name «netinst». The image has the software components needed to run the installer and the base packages to provide a minimal trixie system. If you'd rather, you can get a DVD image which will not need the network to install. You only need the first image of such set.

Download whichever type you prefer and burn it to an optical disc. To boot the disc, you may need to change your BIOS/UEFI configuration, as explained in Раздел 3.6.1, «Invoking the BIOS/UEFI Set-Up Menu».

A.2.2. Загрузка с карты памяти USB

Также возможна установка со съёмных USB устройств хранения. Например, из USB-брелка можно сделать удобный носитель установки Debian, который можно взять с собой куда угодно.

The easiest way to prepare your USB memory stick is to download any Debian CD or DVD image that will fit on it, and write the image directly to the memory stick. Of course this will destroy anything already on the stick. This works because Debian CD/DVD images are «isohybrid» images that can boot both from optical and USB drives.

There are other, more flexible ways to set up a memory stick to use the debian-installer, and it's possible to get it to work with smaller memory sticks. For details, see our wiki.

While booting from USB storage is quite common on UEFI systems, this is somewhat different in the older BIOS world. Some BIOSes can boot USB storage directly, and some cannot. You may need to configure your BIOS/UEFI to enable «USB legacy support» or «Legacy support». The boot device selection menu should show «removable drive» or «USB-HDD» to get it to boot from the USB device. For helpful hints and details, see Раздел 5.1.1, «Загрузка с карты памяти USB».

A.2.3. Загрузка по сети

debian-installer можно загрузить полностью из сети. Методы загрузки по сети (netboot) зависят от архитектуры и настройки сетевой загрузки. Файлы для загрузки debian-installer по сети лежат в каталоге netboot/.

Вероятно, проще всего будет настроить сетевую загрузку с помощью PXE. Распакуйте файл netboot/pxeboot.tar.gz в /srv/tftp или в соответствующий каталог вашего сервера tftp. Настройте сервер DHCP для передачи имени файла pxelinux.0 клиентам и всё должно заработать. Подробную инструкцию смотрите в Раздел 4.5, «Подготовка файлов для загрузки по TFTP».

A.2.4. Загрузка с жёсткого диска

It's possible to boot the installer using no removable media, but just an existing hard disk, which can have a different OS on it. Download hd-media/initrd.gz, hd-media/vmlinuz, and a Debian DVD image to the top-level directory of the hard disk. Make sure that the image has a filename ending in .iso. Now it's just a matter of booting linux with the initrd. Раздел 5.1.3, «Booting from Linux using GRUB» explains one way to do it.