5.4. 安装过程中的故障修复

5.4.1. Reliability of optical media

Sometimes, especially with older drives, the installer may fail to boot from an optical disc. The installer may also — even after booting successfully from such disc — fail to recognize the disc or return errors while reading from it during the installation.

造成这些问题有各种原因。我们只列出了常见的,并提供解决这些问题的一般方法。余下的由您来处理。

您首先应试试两种最简单的方法。

  • If the disc does not boot, check that it was inserted correctly and that it is not dirty.

  • If the installer fails to recognize the disc, try just running the option Detect and mount installation media a second time. Some DMA related issues with very old CD-ROM drives are known to be resolved in this way.

If this does not work, then try the suggestions in the subsections below. Most, but not all, suggestions discussed there are valid for CD-ROM and DVD.

If you cannot get the installation working from optical disc, try one of the other installation methods that are available.

5.4.1.1. 常见问题

  • 有些老 CD-ROM 驱动器不能读取新 CD 刻录机的高速模式下刻录的光盘。

  • 一些非常老的 CD-ROM 驱动器在 direct memory access (DMA) 下无法正常工作。

5.4.1.2. 如何调查研究或许可以解决问题

If the optical disc fails to boot, try the suggestions listed below.

  • Check that your BIOS actually supports booting from optical disc (only an issue for very old systems) and that booting from such media is enabled in the BIOS.

  • If you downloaded an iso image, check that the md5sum of that image matches the one listed for the image in the MD5SUMS file that should be present in the same location as where you downloaded the image from.

    $ md5sum debian-testing-i386-netinst.iso
    a20391b12f7ff22ef705cee4059c6b92  debian-testing-i386-netinst.iso
    

    Next, check that the md5sum of the burned disc matches as well. The following command should work. It uses the size of the image to read the correct number of bytes from the disc.

    $ dd if=/dev/cdrom | \
    > head -c `stat --format=%s debian-testing-i386-netinst.iso` | \
    > md5sum
    a20391b12f7ff22ef705cee4059c6b92  -
    262668+0 records in
    262668+0 records out
    134486016 bytes (134 MB) copied, 97.474 seconds, 1.4 MB/s
    

If, after the installer has been booted successfully, the disc is not detected, sometimes simply trying again may solve the problem. If you have more than one optical drive, try changing the disc to the other drive. If that does not work or if the disc is recognized but there are errors when reading from it, try the suggestions listed below. Some basic knowledge of Linux is required for this. To execute any of the commands, you should first switch to the second virtual console (VT2) and activate the shell there.

  • 切换到 VT4 或查看 /var/log/syslog 的内容(使用 nano 作为编辑器)来检查任何特定的错误信息。之后,再检查 dmesg 的输出。

  • Check in the output of dmesg if your optical drive was recognized. You should see something like (the lines do not necessarily have to be consecutive):

    ata1.00: ATAPI: MATSHITADVD-RAM UJ-822S, 1.61, max UDMA/33
    ata1.00: configured for UDMA/33
    scsi 0:0:0:0: CD-ROM            MATSHITA DVD-RAM UJ-822S  1.61 PQ: 0 ANSI: 5
    sr0: scsi3-mmc drive: 24x/24x writer dvd-ram cd/rw xa/form2 cdda tray
    cdrom: Uniform CD-ROM driver Revision: 3.20
    

    If you don't see something like that, chances are the controller your drive is connected to was not recognized or may be not supported at all. If you know what driver is needed for the controller, you can try loading it manually using modprobe.

  • Check that there is a device node for your optical drive under /dev/. In the example above, this would be /dev/sr0. There should also be a /dev/cdrom.

  • Use the mount command to check if the optical disc is already mounted; if not, try mounting it manually:

    $ mount /dev/hdc /cdrom
    

    Check if there are any error messages after that command.

  • Check if DMA is currently enabled:

    $ cd /proc/ide/hdc
    $ grep using_dma settings
    using_dma      1       0       1       rw
    

    A 1 in the first column after using_dma means it is enabled. If it is, try disabling it:

    $ echo -n "using_dma:0" >settings
    

    Make sure that you are in the directory for the device that corresponds to your optical drive.

  • If there are any problems during the installation, try checking the integrity of the installation media using the option near the bottom of the installer's main menu. This option can also be used as a general test if the disc can be read reliably.

5.4.2. 引导配置

如果在引导过程中您遇到了问题或者内核挂起,不识别实际拥有的外围设备,或者驱动不能被正确识别,首先要做的事情是检查引导参数,见 第 5.3 节 “引导参数” 讨论。

有些情况下,设备固件的丢失可能会造成故障 (参阅 第 2.2 节 “需要固件的设备”第 6.4 节 “加载缺失的固件”)。

5.4.3. 软件语音合成

如果软件语音合成不工作,最大可能是由声卡所致,通常要么是驱动没有被包含到安装程序,要么是不常见的合成器默认设置为静音。您可以提交一份 bug 报告,并包含同一台机器上声音可以正常工作的 Linux 系统上(比如,live CD),运行下面命令的输出。

  • dmesg

  • lspci

  • lsmod

  • amixer

5.4.4. 64-bit PC 常见安装问题

有一些常见的安装问题,可以通过给安装程序特定的引导参数解决或避免。

如果您的显示屏在内核引导的时候显示一个奇怪的图片(比如,纯白、纯黑或者彩色的像素块),系统可能含有一块有问题的显示卡。它不能切换至 framebuffer 模式。您可以使用引导参数 fb=false 来禁止使用 framebuffer 控制台。由于控制台的限制,在安装过程中只能使用少数的几种语言,参阅 第 5.3 节 “引导参数” 来获得细节信息。

5.4.4.1. 在 PCMCIA 配置阶段系统停止

一些非常老的 Dell 笔记本型号,会在 PCMCIA 设备检测程序尝试访问某些硬件地址的时候死机。其他笔记本可能显示类似的问题。如果您遇到那样的问题,并且在安装的时候不需要 PCMCIA 的支持,可以用 hw-detect/start_pcmcia=false 启动参数来取消 PCMCIA 功能。您可以在安装后配置 PCMCIA,去掉造成问题的资源区段。

或者,可以启动安装程序时进入 expert 模式。您需要按照要求输入硬件资源范围选项。比如,如果有如上所说的 Dell 笔记本问题,应该在这里输入 exclude port 0x800-0x8ff。在 System resource settings section of the PCMCIA HOWTO 处列出了一些资源范围选项。注意您在安装程序中,输入这些值的时候必须忽略逗号。

5.4.5. 内核起始信息注解

在引导期间,您可以看到很多信息类似 can't find something,或者 something not presentcan't initialize something,或者甚至 this driver release depends on something。大多数这些信息都是无害的。之所以看到它们,是因为安装系统内核被设计成为可以运行在具有不同外围设备的计算机。显然,没有一个计算机可能拥有所有的外围设备,因此操作系统可能在查找一些您没有的设备上有一些报怨。您有时可以看到系统暂停了一段时间。这是由于它在等待一台设备的回应,但是这台设备并没有安装在系统上。如果您发现这个时间非常长,以后可以创建一个定制的内核(参见 第 8.5 节 “编译新内核”)

5.4.6. 报告安装问题

If you get through the initial boot phase but cannot complete the install, the menu option Save debug logs may be helpful. It lets you store system error logs and configuration information from the installer on a storage medium, or download them using a web browser. This information may provide clues as to what went wrong and how to fix it. If you are submitting a bug report, you may want to attach this information to the bug report.

其他安装期间相关的信息可以在 /var/log/ 内找到,计算机用新安装的系统启动后,放在 /var/log/debian-installer/ 里。

5.4.7. 提交缺陷报告

如果仍有问题,请提交安装报告。即使已经安装成功,我们也鼓励您发一份安装报告,这让我们可以尽可能多地了解硬件的配置数量。

注意,您的安装包括将公布在 Debian Bug Tracking System (BTS) 并转发到公共的邮件列表。确保您使用的邮件地址可以被公开。

如果您有一个可以运转的 Debian 系统,发送安装报告最简单的方法是安装 installation-reportreportbug 软件包(aptitude install installation-report reportbug),配置 reportbug 的说明参阅 第 8.4.2 节 “发送邮件到系统之外”,然后执行 reportbug installation-reports 命令。

Alternatively you can use this template when filling out installation reports, and file the report as a bug report against the installation-reports pseudo package, by sending it to .

Package: installation-reports

Boot method: <How did you boot the installer? CD/DVD? USB stick? Network?>
Image version: <Full URL to image you downloaded is best>
Date: <Date and time of the install>

Machine: <Description of machine (eg, IBM Thinkpad R32)>
Processor:
Memory:
Partitions: <df -Tl will do; the raw partition table is preferred>

Output of lspci -knn (or lspci -nn):

Base System Installation Checklist:
[O] = OK, [E] = Error (please elaborate below), [ ] = didn't try it

Initial boot:           [ ]
Detect network card:    [ ]
Configure network:      [ ]
Detect media:           [ ]
Load installer modules: [ ]
Detect hard drives:     [ ]
Partition hard drives:  [ ]
Install base system:    [ ]
Clock/timezone setup:   [ ]
User/password setup:    [ ]
Install tasks:          [ ]
Install boot loader:    [ ]
Overall install:        [ ]

Comments/Problems:

<Description of the install, in prose, and any thoughts, comments
      and ideas you had during the initial install.>

In the bug report, describe what the problem is, including the last visible kernel messages in the event of a kernel hang. Describe the steps that you did which brought the system into the problem state.