3.1. 安裝概述

首先,提一下關於重新安裝的事情。使用 Debian 時,必須進行完全重新安裝的情況非常少見,可能導致這種情況的大多是硬碟的物理故障。

許多常見的作業系統在遇到嚴重錯誤或者要升級到新的版本時,必須進行重新安裝。就算不需要完全重新安裝,您通常還得把您的應用程式在新系統裡也再重新安裝一遍才行。

在 Debian GNU/Linux 裡,如果作業系統遇到錯誤,大多數的時候您都能把它修復而不用重新安裝。在這裡,升級不再需要進行大規模的安裝動作,您可以就地升級它,而這些程式也總能和新版的作業系統和平共處。如果一個程式的新版本需要其他程式的更新來支援它,Debian 軟體套件管理系統會自動幫您把所有必須的軟體一併安裝上。關鍵是,Debian 為了避免重新安裝而做了大量努力,所以您盡可以不用去煩心這些問題:我們的安裝程式不是設計來重裝您的舊系統的。

以下將帶領您走過安裝過程的每個步驟:

  1. 把將要用來安裝系統的硬碟上的所有資料或者文件都備份下來﹔

  2. 在開始安裝之前,收集您電腦的硬體資料和可能會用到的文件﹔

  3. Locate and/or download the installer software and any specialized driver or firmware files your machine requires.

  4. Set up boot media such as CDs/DVDs/USB sticks or provide a network boot infrastructure from which the installer can be booted.

  5. 開機安裝系統﹔

  6. Select the installation language.

  7. 如果可能,啟用網路連結﹔

  8. If necessary, resize existing partitions on your target harddisk to make space for the installation.

  9. 建立並掛載用來安裝 Debian 的分割區﹔

  10. 等待自動化的下載、安裝和設置基本系統

  11. Select and install additional software.

  12. 安裝boot loader,它負責開機 Debian GNU/Linux 和 (或) 已有的其他系統。

  13. Load the newly installed system for the first time.

For 64-bit PC you have the option of using a graphical version of the installation system. For more information about this graphical installer, see 節 5.1.8, “The Graphical Installer”.

如果您在安裝過程中遇到問題,下面的資訊可以幫助您找到每個步驟裡牽涉到的軟體套件。有關這場安裝「戲劇」的「主角」的介紹:

The installer software, debian-installer, is the primary concern of this manual. It detects hardware and loads appropriate drivers, uses dhcp-client to set up the network connection, runs debootstrap to install the base system packages, and runs tasksel to allow you to install certain additional software. Many more actors play smaller parts in this process, but debian-installer has completed its task when you load the new system for the first time.

To tune the system to your needs, tasksel allows you to choose to install various predefined bundles of software like a Web server or a Desktop environment.

One important option during the installation is whether or not to install a graphical desktop environment, consisting of the X Window System and one of the available graphical desktop environments. If you choose not to select the Desktop environment task, you will only have a relatively basic, command line driven system. Installing the Desktop environment task is optional because in relation to a text-mode-only system it requires a comparatively large amount of disk space and because many Debian GNU/Linux systems are servers which don't really have any need for a graphical user interface to do their job.

Just be aware that the X Window System is completely separate from debian-installer, and in fact is much more complicated. Troubleshooting of the X Window System is not within the scope of this manual.