3.3. 一些有用的資料

3.3.1. 文件

3.3.1.1. 安裝手冊

The document you are now reading, which is a development version of the Installation Guide for the next release of Debian; available in various formats and translations.

3.3.1.2. 硬體文件

通常包含設置和使用您的硬體的實用資料。

3.3.2. 尋找硬體資訊來源

許多情況下,安裝程式能自動檢測您的硬體。但作為預備,我們建議您還是在安裝之前熟悉一下您的硬體比較好。

取得硬體資料的途徑有:

  • 每個硬體附帶的手冊。

  • The BIOS/UEFI setup screens of your computer. You can view these screens when you start your computer by pressing a combination of keys. Check your manual for the combination. Often, it is the Delete or the F2 key, but some manufacturers use other keys or key combinations. Usually upon starting the computer there will be a message stating which key to press to enter the setup screen.

  • 每個硬體的包裝盒。

  • Windows 控制台裡面的系統視窗。

  • 其他作業系統裡面的系統指令或工具,包括檔案管理員的顯示。該資源對瞭解隨機存取記憶體和硬碟特別有用。

  • 您的系統管理員或者網際網路服務提供商。他們可以告訴您所需的設定網路和電子郵件的相關資料。

表格 3.1. Hardware Information Helpful for an Install

硬體 您需要瞭解的資料
硬碟 您擁有的容量
它們在系統上的順序
Whether IDE (also known as PATA), SATA or SCSI.
可用空間
分割區。
安裝有其他作業系統的分割區。
Network interfaces Type/model of available network interfaces.
印表機 型號與製造商。
顯示卡 Type/model and manufacturer.


3.3.3. 硬體相容性

Many products work without trouble on Linux. Moreover, hardware support in Linux is improving daily. However, Linux still does not run as many different types of hardware as some operating systems.

Drivers in Linux in most cases are not written for a certain product or brand from a specific manufacturer, but for a certain hardware/chipset. Many seemingly different products/brands are based on the same hardware design; it is not uncommon that chip manufacturers provide so-called reference designs for products based on their chips which are then used by several different device manufacturers and sold under lots of different product or brand names.

This has advantages and disadvantages. An advantage is that a driver for one chipset works with lots of different products from different manufacturers, as long as their product is based on the same chipset. The disadvantage is that it is not always easy to see which actual chipset is used in a certain product/brand. Unfortunately sometimes device manufacturers change the hardware base of their product without changing the product name or at least the product version number, so that when having two items of the same brand/product name bought at different times, they can sometimes be based on two different chipsets and therefore use two different drivers or there might be no driver at all for one of them.

For USB and PCI/PCI-Express/ExpressCard devices, a good way to find out on which chipset they are based is to look at their device IDs. All USB/PCI/PCI-Express/ExpressCard devices have so called vendor and product IDs, and the combination of these two is usually the same for any product based on the same chipset.

On Linux systems, these IDs can be read with the lsusb command for USB devices and with the lspci -nn command for PCI/PCI-Express/ExpressCard devices. The vendor and product IDs are usually given in the form of two hexadecimal numbers, separated by a colon, such as 1d6b:0001.

An example for the output of lsusb: Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub, whereby 1d6b is the vendor ID and 0002 is the product ID.

An example for the output of lspci -nn for an Ethernet card: 03:00.0 Ethernet controller [0200]: Realtek Semiconductor Co., Ltd. RTL8111/8168B PCI Express Gigabit Ethernet controller [10ec:8168] (rev 06). The IDs are given inside the rightmost square brackets, i.e. here 10ec is the vendor- and 8168 is the product ID.

As another example, a graphics card could give the following output: 04:00.0 VGA compatible controller [0300]: Advanced Micro Devices [AMD] nee ATI RV710 [Radeon HD 4350] [1002:954f].

On Windows systems, the IDs for a device can be found in the Windows device manager on the tab details, where the vendor ID is prefixed with VEN_ and the product ID is prefixed with DEV_. On Windows 7 systems, you have to select the property Hardware IDs in the device manager's details tab to actually see the IDs, as they are not displayed by default.

Searching on the internet with the vendor/product ID, Linux and driver as the search terms often results in information regarding the driver support status for a certain chipset. If a search for the vendor/product ID does not yield usable results, a search for the chip code names, which are also often provided by lsusb and lspci (RTL8111/RTL8168B in the network card example and RV710 in the graphics card example), can help.

3.3.3.1. Testing hardware compatibility with a Live-System

Debian GNU/Linux is also available as a so-called live system for certain architectures. A live system is a preconfigured ready-to-use system in a compressed format that can be booted and used from a read-only medium like a CD or DVD. Using it by default does not create any permanent changes on your computer. You can change user settings and install additional programs from within the live system, but all this only happens in the computer's RAM, i.e. if you turn off the computer and boot the live system again, everything is reset to its defaults. If you want to see whether your hardware is supported by Debian GNU/Linux, the easiest way is to run a Debian live system on it and try it out.

There are a few limitations in using a live system. The first is that as all changes you do within the live system must be held in your computer's RAM, this only works on systems with enough RAM to do that, so installing additional large software packages may fail due to memory constraints. Another limitation with regards to hardware compatibility testing is that the official Debian GNU/Linux live system contains only free components, i.e. there are no non-free firmware files included in it. Such non-free packages can of course be installed manually within the system, but there is no automatic detection of required firmware files like in the debian-installer, so installation of non-free components must be done manually if needed.

Information about the available variants of the Debian live images can be found at the Debian Live Images website.

3.3.4. 網路設置

If your computer is connected to a fixed network (i.e. an Ethernet or equivalent connection — not a dialup/PPP connection) which is administered by somebody else, you should ask your network's system administrator for this information:

  • 您的主機名(也許可以自己決定)。

  • 您的網網域名稱。

  • 您電腦的 IP 位址。

  • 您網路的網路遮罩。

  • 預設路由閘道的 IP 位址,如果您的網路閘道器的話。

  • 您的網路中作為 DNS (網域名稱稱服務) 伺服器的系統。

If the network you are connected to uses DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) for configuring network settings, you don't need this information because the DHCP server will provide it directly to your computer during the installation process.

If you have internet access via DSL or cable modem (i.e. over a cable tv network) and have a router (often provided preconfigured by your phone or catv provider) which handles your network connectivity, DHCP is usually available by default.

As a rule of thumb: if you run a Windows system in your home network and did not have to manually perform any network settings there to achieve Internet access, network connectivity in Debian GNU/Linux will also be configured automatically.

If you use a WLAN/WiFi network, you should find out:

  • The ESSID (network name) of your wireless network.

  • The WEP or WPA/WPA2 security key to access the network (if applicable).