6.1. 安裝程式如何運作

For this architecture the debian-installer supports two different user interfaces: a graphical one and a text-based one. The graphical interface is used by default unless you select an Install option in the boot menu. For more information about booting the graphical installer, please refer to 節 5.1.8, “The Graphical Installer”.

Debian 安裝程式由一些特定功能的元件組成,它們完成各自的安裝任務。每一元件執行任務時,會詢問一些任務相關的問題。每個任務又有各自的優先級,可以在安裝程式開始時設定優先級以決定哪些問題會被問到。

執行預設安裝時,只有必要的 (高優先級) 的問題會被問到。使得安裝過程可以高度自動化,幾乎不需使用者干預。元件按次序執行﹔至於哪些元件會執行,取決於您使用的安裝方法,以及您的硬體。對於沒有詢問的問題,安裝程式將採用預設值。

如何遇到麻煩,使用者會看到錯誤畫面,並且顯示安裝選單供選擇其它替代操作。如果沒有問題,使用者將不會碰到安裝選單,只需依此回答每個元件的提問。嚴重錯誤提示的優先級為 critical,因此使用者總會注意到。

Some of the defaults that the installer uses can be influenced by passing boot arguments when debian-installer is started. If, for example, you wish to force static network configuration (IPv6 autoconfiguration and DHCP are used by default if available), you could add the boot parameter netcfg/disable_autoconfig=true. See 節 5.3.2, “Debian 安裝程式的參數” for available options.

Power users may be more comfortable with a menu-driven interface, where each step is controlled by the user rather than the installer performing each step automatically in sequence. To use the installer in a manual, menu-driven way, add the boot argument priority=medium.

If your hardware requires you to pass options to kernel modules as they are installed, you will need to start the installer in expert mode. This can be done by either using the expert command to start the installer or by adding the boot argument priority=low. Expert mode gives you full control over debian-installer.

In the text-based environment the use of a mouse is not supported. Here are the keys you can use to navigate within the various dialogs. The Tab or right arrow keys move forward, and the Shift+Tab or left arrow keys move backward between displayed buttons and selections. The up and down arrow select different items within a scrollable list, and also scroll the list itself. In addition, in long lists, you can type a letter to cause the list to scroll directly to the section with items starting with the letter you typed and use Pg-Up and Pg-Down to scroll the list in sections. The space bar selects an item such as a checkbox. Use Enter to activate choices.

Some dialogs may offer additional help information. If help is available this will be indicated on the bottom line of the screen by displaying that help information can be accessed by pressing the F1 key.

Error messages and logs are redirected to the fourth console. You can access this console by pressing Left Alt+F4 (hold the left Alt key while pressing the F4 function key); get back to the main installer process with Left Alt+F1.

These messages can also be found in /var/log/syslog. After installation, this log is copied to /var/log/installer/syslog on your new system. Other installation messages may be found in /var/log/ during the installation, and /var/log/installer/ after the computer has been booted into the installed system.

6.1.1. Using the graphical installer

The graphical installer basically works the same as the text-based installer and thus the rest of this manual can be used to guide you through the installation process.

If you prefer using the keyboard over the mouse, there are two things you need to know. To expand a collapsed list (used for example for the selection of countries within continents), you can use the + and - keys. For questions where more than one item can be selected (e.g. task selection), you first need to tab to the Continue button after making your selections; hitting enter will toggle a selection, not activate Continue.

If a dialog offers additional help information, a Help button will be displayed. The help information can be accessed either by activating the button or by pressing the F1 key.

To switch to another console, you will also need to use the Ctrl key, just as with the X Window System. For example, to switch to VT2 (the first debug shell) you would use: Ctrl+Left Alt+F2. The graphical installer itself runs on VT5, so you can use Left Alt+F5 to switch back.