A.2. 安装套件的引导

For some quick links to installation images, check out the debian-installer home page. The debian-cd team provides builds of installation images using debian-installer on the Debian CD/DVD page. For more information on where to get installation images, see 第 4.1 节 “Official Debian GNU/Linux installation images”.

Some installation methods require other images than those for optical media. The debian-installer home page has links to other images. 第 4.2.1 节 “在哪里能找到安装映像” explains how to find images on Debian mirrors.

下面小节会就每种可能的安装方法,具体讲授如何获得所需的映像文件。

A.2.1. Optical disc

The netinst CD image is a popular image which can be used to install bullseye with the debian-installer. This installation method is intended to boot from the image and install additional packages over a network; hence the name netinst. The image has the software components needed to run the installer and the base packages to provide a minimal bullseye system. If you'd rather, you can get a full size CD/DVD image which will not need the network to install. You only need the first image of such set.

Download whichever type you prefer and burn it to an optical disc. To boot the disc, you may need to change your BIOS configuration, as explained in 第 3.6.1 节 “BIOS 设置菜单的使用”.

A.2.2. U 盘

我们也可以从移动 USB 存储设备来安装系统。比如说您带着一个 USB 的钥匙链走遍天涯海角的同时,它还可以成为方便趁手的 Debian 安装介质。

The easiest way to prepare your USB memory stick is to download any Debian CD or DVD image that will fit on it, and write the image directly to the memory stick. Of course this will destroy anything already on the stick. This works because Debian CD/DVD images are isohybrid images that can boot both from optical and USB drives.

除此之外,还有其它更为灵活的办法可以做出能启动 debian-installer 的 U 盘,同时也是有办法适用于较小容量的 U 盘的。欲知详情,请看第 4.3 节 “为从 U 盘引导准备文件”

Some BIOSes can boot USB storage directly, and some cannot. You may need to configure your BIOS to enable USB legacy support. The boot device selection menu should show removable drive or USB-HDD to get it to boot from the USB device. For helpful hints and details, see 第 5.1.1 节 “从 U 盘启动”.

A.2.3. 从网络启动

要完全从网络上启动(即 netboot)debian-installer 也是可行的。而具体采取哪种方法来从网络启动,这取决于您的硬件架构和网络启动的相关设置。在 netboot/ 目录里的文件是用来从网络启动 debian-installer 的。

最简单的建立方式大概是使用 PXE 的网络启动。解压 netboot/pxeboot.tar.gz 文件,把它放到 /srv/tftp,或者您 tftp 服务器上合适的地方。然后再建立 DHCP 服务器,传送 pxelinux.0 这个文件名给客户端。老天保佑的话,就能顺利安装了。若要知道详细的操作步骤,请参阅第 4.5 节 “为使用 TFTP 网络引导准备文件”

A.2.4. 从硬盘启动

It's possible to boot the installer using no removable media, but just an existing hard disk, which can have a different OS on it. Download hd-media/initrd.gz, hd-media/vmlinuz, and a Debian CD/DVD image to the top-level directory of the hard disk. Make sure that the image has a filename ending in .iso. Now it's just a matter of booting linux with the initrd. 第 5.1.5 节 “引导 Linux 使用 LILOGRUB explains one way to do it.