Debian GNU/Linux Installasjonsveiledning

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Build version of this manual: 20200110.

Sammendrag

Dette dokumentet inneholder installasjonsinstruks for Debian GNU/Linux 11-systemet (kodenavn «bullseye»), for 64-bit PC («amd64»)-arkitekturen. Det inneholder også flere referanser til mer informasjon, og hvordan du kan få mest ut av ditt nye Debian-system.


Innholdsfortegnelse

Installing Debian GNU/Linux 11 for amd64
1. Velkommen til Debian
1.1. Hva er Debian?
1.2. Hva er GNU/Linux?
1.3. What is Debian GNU/Linux?
1.4. What is Debian GNU/kFreeBSD?
1.5. Hva er Debian GNU/Hurd?
1.6. What is the Debian Installer?
1.7. Hent Debian
1.8. Getting the Newest Version of This Document
1.9. Organization of This Document
1.10. Hjelp til dokumentasjonen er velkommen
1.11. Om kopirett og programvarelisenser
2. Systemkrav
2.1. Støttet maskinvare
2.1.1. Støttede arkitekturer
2.1.2. CPU Support
2.1.3. Laptops
2.1.4. Multiple Processors
2.1.5. Graphics Hardware Support
2.1.6. Network Connectivity Hardware
2.1.7. Braille Displays
2.1.8. Hardware Speech Synthesis
2.1.9. Peripherals and Other Hardware
2.2. Devices Requiring Firmware
2.3. Purchasing Hardware Specifically for GNU/Linux
2.3.1. Avoid Proprietary or Closed Hardware
2.4. Installation Media
2.4.1. CD-ROM/DVD-ROM/BD-ROM
2.4.2. USB Memory Stick
2.4.3. Network
2.4.4. Hard Disk
2.4.5. Un*x or GNU system
2.4.6. Supported Storage Systems
2.5. Memory and Disk Space Requirements
3. Before Installing Debian GNU/Linux
3.1. Overview of the Installation Process
3.2. Back Up Your Existing Data!
3.3. Information You Will Need
3.3.1. Documentation
3.3.2. Finding Sources of Hardware Information
3.3.3. Hardware Compatibility
3.3.4. Network Settings
3.4. Meeting Minimum Hardware Requirements
3.5. Pre-Partitioning for Multi-Boot Systems
3.6. Pre-Installation Hardware and Operating System Setup
3.6.1. Invoking the BIOS Set-Up Menu
3.6.2. Boot Device Selection
3.6.3. Systems with UEFI firmware
3.6.4. Disabling the Windows 8 «fast boot» feature
3.6.5. Hardware Issues to Watch Out For
4. Obtaining System Installation Media
4.1. Official Debian GNU/Linux installation images
4.2. Downloading Files from Debian Mirrors
4.2.1. Where to Find Installation Images
4.3. Preparing Files for USB Memory Stick Booting
4.3.1. Preparing a USB stick using a hybrid CD/DVD image
4.3.2. Manually copying files to the USB stick
4.3.3. Manually copying files to the USB stick — the flexible way
4.4. Preparing Files for Hard Disk Booting
4.4.1. Hard disk installer booting from Linux using LILO or GRUB
4.4.2. Hard disk installer booting from DOS using loadlin
4.5. Preparing Files for TFTP Net Booting
4.5.1. Setting up a DHCP server
4.5.2. Setting up a BOOTP server
4.5.3. Enabling the TFTP Server
4.5.4. Move TFTP Images Into Place
4.6. Automatic Installation
4.6.1. Automatic Installation Using the Debian Installer
5. Booting the Installation System
5.1. Booting the Installer on 64-bit PC
5.1.1. Booting from USB Memory Stick
5.1.2. Booting from optical disc (CD/DVD)
5.1.3. Booting from Windows
5.1.4. Booting from DOS using loadlin
5.1.5. Booting from Linux using LILO or GRUB
5.1.6. Booting with TFTP
5.1.7. The Boot Screen
5.1.8. The Graphical Installer
5.2. Accessibility
5.2.1. Installer front-end
5.2.2. USB Braille Displays
5.2.3. Serial Braille Displays
5.2.4. Software Speech Synthesis
5.2.5. Hardware Speech Synthesis
5.2.6. Board Devices
5.2.7. High-Contrast Theme
5.2.8. Zoom
5.2.9. Expert install, rescue mode, automated install
5.2.10. Accessibility of the installed system
5.3. Boot Parameters
5.3.1. Boot console
5.3.2. Debian Installer Parameters
5.3.3. Using boot parameters to answer questions
5.3.4. Passing parameters to kernel modules
5.3.5. Blacklisting kernel modules
5.4. Troubleshooting the Installation Process
5.4.1. Reliability of optical media
5.4.2. Boot Configuration
5.4.3. Software Speech Synthesis
5.4.4. Common 64-bit PC Installation Problems
5.4.5. Interpreting the Kernel Startup Messages
5.4.6. Reporting Installation Problems
5.4.7. Submitting Installation Reports
6. Using the Debian Installer
6.1. How the Installer Works
6.1.1. Using the graphical installer
6.2. Components Introduction
6.3. Using Individual Components
6.3.1. Setting up Debian Installer and Hardware Configuration
6.3.2. Setting Up Users And Passwords
6.3.3. Configuring the Clock and Time Zone
6.3.4. Partitioning and Mount Point Selection
6.3.5. Installing the Base System
6.3.6. Installing Additional Software
6.3.7. Making Your System Bootable
6.3.8. Finishing the Installation
6.3.9. Troubleshooting
6.3.10. Installation Over the Network
6.4. Loading Missing Firmware
6.4.1. Preparing a medium
6.4.2. Firmware and the Installed System
7. Booting Into Your New Debian System
7.1. Sannhetens øyeblikk
7.2. Mounting encrypted volumes
7.2.1. Troubleshooting
7.3. Log In
8. Next Steps and Where to Go From Here
8.1. Shutting down the system
8.2. Orienting Yourself to Debian
8.2.1. Debian Packaging System
8.2.2. Additional Software Available for Debian
8.2.3. Application Version Management
8.2.4. Cron Job Management
8.3. Further Reading and Information
8.4. Setting Up Your System To Use E-Mail
8.4.1. Default E-Mail Configuration
8.4.2. Sending E-Mails Outside The System
8.4.3. Configuring the Exim4 Mail Transport Agent
8.5. Compiling a New Kernel
8.6. Recovering a Broken System
A. Installation Howto
A.1. Preliminaries
A.2. Booting the installer
A.2.1. Optical disc
A.2.2. USB memory stick
A.2.3. Booting from network
A.2.4. Booting from hard disk
A.3. Installation
A.4. Send us an installation report
A.5. And finally…
B. Automating the installation using preseeding
B.1. Introduction
B.1.1. Preseeding methods
B.1.2. Limitations
B.2. Using preseeding
B.2.1. Loading the preconfiguration file
B.2.2. Using boot parameters to preseed questions
B.2.3. Auto mode
B.2.4. Aliases useful with preseeding
B.2.5. Using a DHCP server to specify preconfiguration files
B.3. Creating a preconfiguration file
B.4. Contents of the preconfiguration file (for bullseye)
B.4.1. Localization
B.4.2. Network configuration
B.4.3. Network console
B.4.4. Mirror settings
B.4.5. Account setup
B.4.6. Clock and time zone setup
B.4.7. Partitioning
B.4.8. Base system installation
B.4.9. Apt setup
B.4.10. Package selection
B.4.11. Boot loader installation
B.4.12. Finishing up the installation
B.4.13. Preseeding other packages
B.5. Advanced options
B.5.1. Running custom commands during the installation
B.5.2. Using preseeding to change default values
B.5.3. Chainloading preconfiguration files
C. Partitioning for Debian
C.1. Deciding on Debian Partitions and Sizes
C.2. The Directory Tree
C.3. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
C.4. Device Names in Linux
C.5. Debian Partitioning Programs
C.5.1. Partitioning for 64-bit PC
D. Random Bits
D.1. Linux Devices
D.1.1. Setting Up Your Mouse
D.2. Disk Space Needed for Tasks
D.3. Installing Debian GNU/Linux from a Unix/Linux System
D.3.1. Getting Started
D.3.2. Install debootstrap
D.3.3. Run debootstrap
D.3.4. Configure The Base System
D.3.5. Install a Kernel
D.3.6. Set up the Boot Loader
D.3.7. Remote access: Installing SSH and setting up access
D.3.8. Finishing touches
D.4. Installing Debian GNU/Linux over Parallel Line IP (PLIP)
D.4.1. Requirements
D.4.2. Setting up source
D.4.3. Installing target
D.5. Installing Debian GNU/Linux using PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)
E. Formaliteter
E.1. Om dette dokumentet
E.2. Bidrag til dette dokumentet
E.3. Hovedbidragsytere
E.4. Varemerkehenvisninger
F. GNU General Public License

tabelloversikt

3.1. Hardware Information Helpful for an Install
3.2. Recommended Minimum System Requirements