Debian GNU/Linux - Ghid de instalare

Acest manual este software liber; poate fi distribuit şi/sau modificat în termenii licenţei GNU General Public License. Vă rugăm să citiţi licenţa la Anexa F, GNU General Public License.

Versiunea Build a acestui manual: 20220213.


Acest document conţine instrucţiuni de instalare pentru sistemul Debian GNU/Linux 12 (nume de cod bookworm), pentru arhitectura 64-bit PC (amd64). Conţine, de asemenea, indicii pentru a găsi mai multe informaţii, în general, şi informaţii legate de felul în care puteţi să profitaţi la maxim de noul dumneavoastră sistem Debian, în particular.

[Avertisment] Avertisment

This translation of the installation guide is not up-to-date and currently there is noone actively working on updating it. Keep this in mind when reading it; it may contain outdated or wrong information. Read or double-check the English variant, if in doubt. If you can help us with updating the translation, please contact or the debian-l10n-xxx mailinglist for this language. Many thanks


Instalarea Debian GNU/Linux 12 pentru amd64
1. Bine aţi venit în Debian
1.1. Ce este Debian?
1.2. Ce este GNU/Linux?
1.3. Ce este Debian GNU/Linux?
1.4. Ce este Debian GNU/kFreeBSD?
1.5. Ce este Debian GNU/Hurd?
1.6. What is the Debian Installer?
1.7. Cum obţineţi Debian
1.8. Cum obţineţi cea mai recentă versiune a acestui document
1.9. Organizarea acestui document
1.10. Ajutorul dumneavoastră la documentaţie este bine-venit
1.11. Despre drepturi de autor şi licenţe de software
2. System Requirements
2.1. Supported Hardware
2.1.1. Supported Architectures
2.1.2. CPU Support
2.1.3. Laptops
2.1.4. Multiple Processors
2.1.5. Graphics Hardware Support
2.1.6. Network Connectivity Hardware
2.1.7. Braille Displays
2.1.8. Hardware Speech Synthesis
2.1.9. Peripherals and Other Hardware
2.2. Devices Requiring Firmware
2.3. Purchasing Hardware Specifically for GNU/Linux
2.3.1. Avoid Proprietary or Closed Hardware
2.4. Installation Media
2.4.2. USB Memory Stick
2.4.3. Network
2.4.4. Hard Disk
2.4.5. Un*x or GNU system
2.4.6. Supported Storage Systems
2.5. Memory and Disk Space Requirements
3. Before Installing Debian GNU/Linux
3.1. Overview of the Installation Process
3.2. Back Up Your Existing Data!
3.3. Information You Will Need
3.3.1. Documentation
3.3.2. Finding Sources of Hardware Information
3.3.3. Hardware Compatibility
3.3.4. Network Settings
3.4. Meeting Minimum Hardware Requirements
3.5. Pre-Partitioning for Multi-Boot Systems
3.6. Pre-Installation Hardware and Operating System Setup
3.6.1. Invoking the BIOS/UEFI Set-Up Menu
3.6.2. Boot Device Selection
3.6.3. Systems with UEFI firmware
3.6.4. Secure boot
3.6.5. Disabling the Windows fast boot/fast startup feature
3.6.6. Hardware Issues to Watch Out For
4. Obtaining System Installation Media
4.1. Official Debian GNU/Linux installation images
4.2. Downloading Files from Debian Mirrors
4.2.1. Where to Find Installation Files
4.3. Preparing Files for USB Memory Stick Booting
4.3.1. Preparing a USB stick using a hybrid CD/DVD image
4.3.2. Manually copying files to the USB stick
4.3.3. Manually copying files to the USB stick — the flexible way
4.4. Preparing Files for Hard Disk Booting
4.4.1. Hard disk installer booting from Linux using GRUB
4.4.2. Hard disk installer booting from DOS using loadlin
4.5. Preparing Files for TFTP Net Booting
4.5.1. Setting up a DHCP server
4.5.2. Setting up a BOOTP server
4.5.3. Enabling the TFTP Server
4.5.4. Move TFTP Images Into Place
4.6. Automatic Installation
4.6.1. Automatic Installation Using the Debian Installer
4.7. Verifying the integrity of installation files
5. Booting the Installation System
5.1. Booting the Installer on 64-bit PC
5.1.1. Booting from USB Memory Stick
5.1.2. Booting from optical disc (CD/DVD)
5.1.3. Booting from Windows
5.1.4. Booting from DOS using loadlin
5.1.5. Booting from Linux using GRUB
5.1.6. Booting with TFTP
5.1.7. The Boot Screen
5.1.8. The Graphical Installer
5.2. Accessibility
5.2.1. Installer front-end
5.2.2. USB Braille Displays
5.2.3. Serial Braille Displays
5.2.4. Software Speech Synthesis
5.2.5. Hardware Speech Synthesis
5.2.6. Board Devices
5.2.7. High-Contrast Theme
5.2.8. Zoom
5.2.9. Expert install, rescue mode, automated install
5.2.10. Accessibility of the installed system
5.3. Boot Parameters
5.3.1. Boot console
5.3.2. Debian Installer Parameters
5.3.3. Using boot parameters to answer questions
5.3.4. Passing parameters to kernel modules
5.3.5. Blacklisting kernel modules
5.4. Troubleshooting the Installation Process
5.4.1. Reliability of optical media
5.4.2. Boot Configuration
5.4.3. Software Speech Synthesis
5.4.4. Common 64-bit PC Installation Problems
5.4.5. Interpreting the Kernel Startup Messages
5.4.6. Reporting Installation Problems
5.4.7. Submitting Installation Reports
6. Cum se folosește Programul de instalare al Debian
6.1. Cum funcționează programul de instalare
6.1.1. Using the graphical installer
6.2. Componentele - Introducere
6.3. Folosirea componentelor individuale
6.3.1. Pregătirea Programului de instalare al Debian și a configurației hardware
6.3.2. Setting Up Users And Passwords
6.3.3. Configuring the Clock and Time Zone
6.3.4. Partiționarea și selectarea punctelor de montare
6.3.5. Installing the Base System
6.3.6. Installing Additional Software
6.3.7. Making Your System Bootable
6.3.8. Finishing the Installation
6.3.9. Troubleshooting
6.3.10. Installation over network-console
6.4. Loading Missing Firmware
6.4.1. Preparing a medium
6.4.2. Firmware and the Installed System
6.4.3. Completing the Installed System
6.5. Customization
6.5.1. Installing an alternative init system
7. Booting Into Your New Debian System
7.1. The Moment of Truth
7.2. Mounting encrypted volumes
7.2.1. Troubleshooting
7.3. Log In
8. Next Steps and Where to Go From Here
8.1. Shutting down the system
8.2. Orienting Yourself to Debian
8.2.1. Debian Packaging System
8.2.2. Additional Software Available for Debian
8.2.3. Application Version Management
8.2.4. Cron Job Management
8.3. Further Reading and Information
8.4. Setting Up Your System To Use E-Mail
8.4.1. Default E-Mail Configuration
8.4.2. Sending E-Mails Outside The System
8.4.3. Configuring the Exim4 Mail Transport Agent
8.5. Compiling a New Kernel
8.6. Recovering a Broken System
A. Installation Howto
A.1. Preliminaries
A.2. Booting the installer
A.2.1. Optical disc
A.2.2. USB memory stick
A.2.3. Booting from network
A.2.4. Booting from hard disk
A.3. Installation
A.4. Send us an installation report
A.5. And finally…
B. Automating the installation using preseeding
B.1. Introduction
B.1.1. Preseeding methods
B.1.2. Limitations
B.2. Using preseeding
B.2.1. Loading the preconfiguration file
B.2.2. Using boot parameters to preseed questions
B.2.3. Auto mode
B.2.4. Aliases useful with preseeding
B.2.5. Examples of boot prompt preseeding
B.2.6. Using a DHCP server to specify preconfiguration files
B.3. Creating a preconfiguration file
B.4. Contents of the preconfiguration file (for bookworm)
B.4.1. Localization
B.4.2. Network configuration
B.4.3. Network console
B.4.4. Mirror settings
B.4.5. Account setup
B.4.6. Clock and time zone setup
B.4.7. Partitioning
B.4.8. Base system installation
B.4.9. Apt setup
B.4.10. Package selection
B.4.11. Boot loader installation
B.4.12. Finishing up the installation
B.4.13. Preseeding other packages
B.5. Advanced options
B.5.1. Running custom commands during the installation
B.5.2. Using preseeding to change default values
B.5.3. Chainloading preconfiguration files
C. Partitioning for Debian
C.1. Deciding on Debian Partitions and Sizes
C.2. The Directory Tree
C.3. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
C.4. Device Names in Linux
C.5. Debian Partitioning Programs
C.5.1. Partitioning for 64-bit PC
D. Random Bits
D.1. Linux Devices
D.1.1. Setting Up Your Mouse
D.2. Disk Space Needed for Tasks
D.3. Installing Debian GNU/Linux from a Unix/Linux System
D.3.1. Getting Started
D.3.2. Install debootstrap
D.3.3. Run debootstrap
D.3.4. Configure The Base System
D.3.5. Install a Kernel
D.3.6. Set up the Boot Loader
D.3.7. Remote access: Installing SSH and setting up access
D.3.8. Finishing touches
D.4. Installing Debian GNU/Linux over Parallel Line IP (PLIP)
D.4.1. Requirements
D.4.2. Setting up source
D.4.3. Installing target
D.5. Installing Debian GNU/Linux using PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)
E. Administrivia
E.1. About This Document
E.2. Contributing to This Document
E.3. Major Contributions
E.4. Trademark Acknowledgement
F. GNU General Public License

Listă de tabele

3.1. Hardware Information Helpful for an Install
3.2. Recommended Minimum System Requirements