Підручник зі встановлення Debian GNU/Linux

This manual is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License. Please refer to the license in Додаток F, Загальна громадська ліцензія GNU.

Версія збирання цього посібника: 20220213.


This document contains installation instructions for the Debian GNU/Linux 12 system (codename «bookworm»), for the 64-bit PC («amd64») architecture. It also contains pointers to more information and information on how to make the most of your new Debian system.


Installing Debian GNU/Linux 12 for amd64
1. Вітаємо в Debian
1.1. Що таке Debian?
1.2. Що таке GNU/Linux?
1.3. Що таке Debian GNU/Linux?
1.4. Що таке Debian GNU/kFreeBSD?
1.5. Що таке Debian GNU/Hurd?
1.6. Що таке Встановлювач Debian?
1.7. Getting Debian
1.8. Getting the Newest Version of This Document
1.9. Organization of This Document
1.10. Your Documentation Help is Welcome
1.11. About Copyrights and Software Licenses
2. Системні вимоги
2.1. Підтримуване обладнання
2.1.1. Підтримувані архітектури
2.1.2. Підтримка ЦП
2.1.3. Laptops
2.1.4. Multiple Processors
2.1.5. Graphics Hardware Support
2.1.6. Network Connectivity Hardware
2.1.7. Braille Displays
2.1.8. Hardware Speech Synthesis
2.1.9. Периферійне та інше обладнання
2.2. Devices Requiring Firmware
2.3. Purchasing Hardware Specifically for GNU/Linux
2.3.1. Avoid Proprietary or Closed Hardware
2.4. Installation Media
2.4.2. USB Memory Stick
2.4.3. Мережа
2.4.4. Твердий диск
2.4.5. Un*x or GNU system
2.4.6. Підтримувані системи сховищ
2.5. Вимоги до памʼяті та дискового простору
3. Before Installing Debian GNU/Linux
3.1. Overview of the Installation Process
3.2. Back Up Your Existing Data!
3.3. Information You Will Need
3.3.1. Documentation
3.3.2. Finding Sources of Hardware Information
3.3.3. Hardware Compatibility
3.3.4. Network Settings
3.4. Meeting Minimum Hardware Requirements
3.5. Pre-Partitioning for Multi-Boot Systems
3.6. Pre-Installation Hardware and Operating System Setup
3.6.1. Invoking the BIOS/UEFI Set-Up Menu
3.6.2. Boot Device Selection
3.6.3. Systems with UEFI firmware
3.6.4. Secure boot
3.6.5. Disabling the Windows «fast boot»/«fast startup» feature
3.6.6. Hardware Issues to Watch Out For
4. Obtaining System Installation Media
4.1. Official Debian GNU/Linux installation images
4.2. Downloading Files from Debian Mirrors
4.2.1. Where to Find Installation Files
4.3. Preparing Files for USB Memory Stick Booting
4.3.1. Preparing a USB stick using a hybrid CD/DVD image
4.3.2. Manually copying files to the USB stick
4.3.3. Manually copying files to the USB stick — the flexible way
4.4. Preparing Files for Hard Disk Booting
4.4.1. Hard disk installer booting from Linux using GRUB
4.4.2. Hard disk installer booting from DOS using loadlin
4.5. Preparing Files for TFTP Net Booting
4.5.1. Setting up a DHCP server
4.5.2. Setting up a BOOTP server
4.5.3. Enabling the TFTP Server
4.5.4. Move TFTP Images Into Place
4.6. Automatic Installation
4.6.1. Automatic Installation Using the Debian Installer
4.7. Verifying the integrity of installation files
5. Завантаження системи встановлення
5.1. Завантаження встановлювача на 64-bit PC
5.1.1. Booting from USB Memory Stick
5.1.2. Завантаження з оптичного диска (CD/DVD)
5.1.3. Завантаження з Windows
5.1.4. Booting from DOS using loadlin
5.1.5. Завантаження з Linux за допомогою GRUB
5.1.6. Booting with TFTP
5.1.7. Екран завантаження
5.1.8. Графічний інсталятор
5.2. Accessibility
5.2.1. Installer front-end
5.2.2. USB Braille Displays
5.2.3. Serial Braille Displays
5.2.4. Software Speech Synthesis
5.2.5. Hardware Speech Synthesis
5.2.6. Board Devices
5.2.7. Тема з високим контрастом
5.2.8. Zoom
5.2.9. Expert install, rescue mode, automated install
5.2.10. Accessibility of the installed system
5.3. Параметри завантаження
5.3.1. Консоль завантаження
5.3.2. Debian Installer Parameters
5.3.3. Using boot parameters to answer questions
5.3.4. Passing parameters to kernel modules
5.3.5. Blacklisting kernel modules
5.4. Troubleshooting the Installation Process
5.4.1. Reliability of optical media
5.4.2. Налаштування завантаження
5.4.3. Software Speech Synthesis
5.4.4. Common 64-bit PC Installation Problems
5.4.5. Interpreting the Kernel Startup Messages
5.4.6. Reporting Installation Problems
5.4.7. Submitting Installation Reports
6. Using the Debian Installer
6.1. How the Installer Works
6.1.1. Using the graphical installer
6.2. Components Introduction
6.3. Using Individual Components
6.3.1. Setting up Debian Installer and Hardware Configuration
6.3.2. Setting Up Users And Passwords
6.3.3. Configuring the Clock and Time Zone
6.3.4. Partitioning and Mount Point Selection
6.3.5. Installing the Base System
6.3.6. Installing Additional Software
6.3.7. Making Your System Bootable
6.3.8. Finishing the Installation
6.3.9. Усунення несправностей
6.3.10. Installation over network-console
6.4. Loading Missing Firmware
6.4.1. Preparing a medium
6.4.2. Firmware and the Installed System
6.4.3. Completing the Installed System
6.5. Customization
6.5.1. Installing an alternative init system
7. Завантаження у Вашу нову систему Debian
7.1. Момент істини
7.2. Монтування зашифрованих томів
7.2.1. Усунення несправностей
7.3. Вхід
8. Next Steps and Where to Go From Here
8.1. Shutting down the system
8.2. Orienting Yourself to Debian
8.2.1. Debian Packaging System
8.2.2. Additional Software Available for Debian
8.2.3. Application Version Management
8.2.4. Cron Job Management
8.3. Further Reading and Information
8.4. Setting Up Your System To Use E-Mail
8.4.1. Default E-Mail Configuration
8.4.2. Sending E-Mails Outside The System
8.4.3. Configuring the Exim4 Mail Transport Agent
8.5. Compiling a New Kernel
8.6. Recovering a Broken System
A. Installation Howto
A.1. Preliminaries
A.2. Booting the installer
A.2.1. Optical disc
A.2.2. USB memory stick
A.2.3. Booting from network
A.2.4. Booting from hard disk
A.3. Installation
A.4. Send us an installation report
A.5. And finally…
B. Automating the installation using preseeding
B.1. Introduction
B.1.1. Preseeding methods
B.1.2. Limitations
B.2. Using preseeding
B.2.1. Loading the preconfiguration file
B.2.2. Using boot parameters to preseed questions
B.2.3. Auto mode
B.2.4. Aliases useful with preseeding
B.2.5. Examples of boot prompt preseeding
B.2.6. Using a DHCP server to specify preconfiguration files
B.3. Creating a preconfiguration file
B.4. Contents of the preconfiguration file (for bookworm)
B.4.1. Localization
B.4.2. Network configuration
B.4.3. Network console
B.4.4. Mirror settings
B.4.5. Account setup
B.4.6. Clock and time zone setup
B.4.7. Partitioning
B.4.8. Base system installation
B.4.9. Apt setup
B.4.10. Package selection
B.4.11. Boot loader installation
B.4.12. Finishing up the installation
B.4.13. Preseeding other packages
B.5. Advanced options
B.5.1. Running custom commands during the installation
B.5.2. Using preseeding to change default values
B.5.3. Chainloading preconfiguration files
C. Partitioning for Debian
C.1. Deciding on Debian Partitions and Sizes
C.2. The Directory Tree
C.3. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
C.4. Device Names in Linux
C.5. Debian Partitioning Programs
C.5.1. Partitioning for 64-bit PC
D. Random Bits
D.1. Linux Devices
D.1.1. Setting Up Your Mouse
D.2. Disk Space Needed for Tasks
D.3. Installing Debian GNU/Linux from a Unix/Linux System
D.3.1. Getting Started
D.3.2. Install debootstrap
D.3.3. Run debootstrap
D.3.4. Configure The Base System
D.3.5. Install a Kernel
D.3.6. Set up the Boot Loader
D.3.7. Remote access: Installing SSH and setting up access
D.3.8. Finishing touches
D.4. Installing Debian GNU/Linux over Parallel Line IP (PLIP)
D.4.1. Requirements
D.4.2. Setting up source
D.4.3. Installing target
D.5. Installing Debian GNU/Linux using PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)
E. Administrivia
E.1. Про цей документ
E.2. Зробити внесок у цей документ
E.3. Основні співрозробники
E.4. Trademark Acknowledgement
F. Загальна громадська ліцензія GNU

Список таблиць

3.1. Hardware Information Helpful for an Install
3.2. Recommended Minimum System Requirements